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PRESS RELEASE

PRESS RELEASE

TECHNICAL INFO:
Eyüp Mehmet DİNÇ
INFO REQUEST:
Data Dissemination Group
+90 312 454 75 92    
+90 312 454 72 65
mehmet.dinc@tuik.gov.tr
bilgi@tuik.gov.tr
  /tuikbilgi
/tuikbilgi
Meta Data

Data compilation: Customs declarations used for production of foreign trade statistics are compiled by the Ministry of Trade.
 
Data Compilation System: The program BILGE  and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) are used by the Ministry of Trade to compile trade data.

Data Processing System: Turkey's foreign trade data are processed only by the Turkish Statistical Institute by using SAS programme.

 

Periodicity: It is produced and published monthly.
 
Timeliness: Timeliness of statistics is compliant with the EU's and other international standards. Publication date is announced to the public with the National Data Release Calendar.
 
Publication and dissemination: Monthly foreign trade statistics are published 30 days after the reference month.
 
The National Data Release Calendar for following year is published in the TurkStat web site in December.
 
The data are disseminated simultaneously to all interested parties through news release, statistical tables and a database.
 
Confidentiality: According to the Statistics Law of Turkey No: 5429
 
(1) Foreign trade statistics are published by TurkStat.
 
(2) TurkStat is authorized in determination of methods and calendar of publication of statistics.
 
(3) Data is collected for statistical purposes and “passive confidentiality” is used.
 
According to the Article 13 of Turkish Statistical Law, confidential data can be accessed only by the ones involved in the production of official statistics, to the extent that they need for performing their duties properly. If the number of the statistical unit in any cell of the data table formed by aggregating the individual data is less than three or one or two of the statistical units are dominant even if the number of units is three or more, the data in the concerned cell is considered confidential.
 
The  confidential  data  compiled,  processed  and  preserved  for  the  production  of  official  statistics  cannot  be delivered  to  any  administrative,  judiciary  or  military  authority  or  person,  can  not  be  used  for  purposes  other  than statistics or as an instrument of proof. Civil servants and other staff in charge of compiling and processing these data are obliged to comply with this rule. This obligation continues after the related personnel leave their duties and posts.
 
The rulers of the institutions and organisations producing official statistics shall take all measures to prevent any illicit access, use or revelation of the confidential data.
 
Data or information obtained from sources that are open to all people shall not be deemed confidential.
 
Data  confidentiality  ceases  when  a  statistical  unit  gives  written  approval  for  the  revelation  of  confidential data concerning itself.
 
Confidential data can be published only as combined with other data so as not to allow any direct or indirect identification.
 
(Additional clause: 25/11/2008-5813/2 article)
 
For the data considered confidential due to the indirect identification in foreign trade  statistics, these confidentiality rules are implemented when a statistical unit applies with a written application requiring consideration of its data as confidential.
 
In principle, suppressions made on commodity code. If this application isn't enough, net mass, partner country, customs can be suppressed. 
 
Because of application of confidentiality, total value related to commodities combined in a Commodity Code under the same chapter, was given in a different group as “confidential data” to prevent any  missing value in main group total in classifications. The subgroup values in the mentioned commodities, contain remained commodities' values after subtracted values of confidential data. 
 
Because of application of confidentiality, the data applied confidentiality for partner country are given as “confidential country” and the data applied confidentiality for province are given as “confidential data”.
 
Identification of internal access to data before release: It is impossible to access to the data before publishing by anybody except staff working for producing foreign trade statistics.
 
International methods: Foreign trade statistics are produced according to the United Nations' and European Union Statistics Office's (Eurostat) definitions, concepts and methods. The International Merchandise Trade Statistics (IMTS 2010 is used to produce foreign trade statistics.
 
Identification of commentary on the occasion of statistical releases: Brief comments regarding data are made in news bulletin, otherwise the real interpretation of data is left to users.
 
Provision of information about revision and advance notice of major changes in methodology: Rules related to foreign trade statistics are determined according to official statistics programme.
Furthermore, by taking attention to additional customs data, in publication of reference period information, revision is made for previous months.
 
In case of important changes on data coverage and methodology, users are informed by "public announcement" before publication and meta data is also revised.

Seasonal and calendar related effects prevent observing the general tendency of data because of their temporary characteristics. Therefore, identification of seasonal patterns of short term indicators plays a crucial role in making reliable comparisons between consecutive periods. 

Method Used
The seasonal adjustment of Foreign Trade Statistics is carried out using TRAMO-SEATS methodology. The software that is used for the application of this method is JDemetra+ developed by the National Bank of Belgium (NBB) in cooperation with the Deutsche Bundesbank and Eurostat in accordance with the Guidelines of the European Statistical System.

Seasonal Adjustment Process
Seasonal and calendar adjustment process of Foreign Trade Statistics begins at the end of each year with the identification of the models of next year.  This specified model structure is kept fixed throughout the year to adjust seasonally and/or calendar effects. At the end of the year, just like the previous year, specification of econometric estimation models for the following year is done. The identified process repeats itself in a cyclical manner each year.

While 21 subtitles of Foreign Trade series contain both seasonal and calendar effects,   4 subtitles contain neither of these effects,  3 subtitles include only calendar effects. 

Direct or Indirect Seasonal Adjustment

Seasonally and calendar adjusted figures of total exports and imports are produced by indirect approach. The individual subtitles of Foreign Trade series by SITC and BEC classification are seasonally adjusted and then aggregated to derive seasonally and calendar adjusted totals. The indirect approach has the advantage of easy calculation of contributions to growth from components of main aggregates and advantage of retaining additivity.

Revision Policy

Seasonal adjustment procedure is subject to revisions over time because of the re-estimation of seasonal component as new observations are added. These revisions are implemented on the data of the last three years excluding the current year.

Publication

Adjusted data has been published in 3 different ways.
“Calendar adjusted” data is derived from unadjusted data by removing calendar and holiday originated effects. Calendar adjusted data should be used in comparisons regarding the same month/period of the previous year.
“Seasonally adjusted” data is derived from unadjusted data by removing effects originating from seasonal effects. Seasonally adjusted data should be used in comparisons regarding the previous month/period.
If unadjusted data contains both calendar and holiday, and seasonal effects, “seasonally and calendar adjusted” data is derived by removing these effects. Seasonally and calendar adjusted data should be used in comparisons regarding the previous month/period. 
 

 Coverage:

- Normal export and import procedures
- Under customs inward and outward   processing procedures
- Border trade
- Imports by financial leasing
- Non-monetary gold
- Re-export/re-import
- Returned goods

Items excluded from foreign trade statistics are
- Transit trade
- Shuttle trade
- Temporary import and export
- Commodities not crossed border
- Transactions under 100 US Dollars
- Monetary gold, means of payment which are legal tender, securities (HS 710820, 4907)
- Goods for repair and maintenance
- Goods imported / exported by operational leasing
- Goods sent abroad for military troops

Geographical coverage: Geographical coverage is based on economic boundaries. The customs area, called free circulation area, free zones and warehouses constitute the economic area.

Geographic detail: Data by province are available since 2013 by general trade system and since 2002 by special trade system and disseminated by country, country groups and first 2 digits of all classifications.

Province data: Foreign trade statistics by province is based on the location of the head office of the firms recorded in the Revenue Administration Department’s registers.

When comparing annual data by province, it should be considered that location of head office of the enterprises may change year by year.
Valuation: Foreign trade figures are published as "statitical value". Value does not include any tax.
 
All goods covered in international merchandise trade statistics, whether sold, exchanged or provided without payment, must have a statistical value. Value of a product is the transaction value that the price actually paid or payable for goods including some adjustments in accordance with the WTO Agreement on Customs Valuation.
 
The valuation of goods is FOB for export and CIF for import.
 
Foreign trade data is available as US Dollar, Euro and Turkish Lira.
 
For converting currencies, daily exchange rates published by the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey are used.
 
Quantity: Except natural gas and electricity, net mass as kg is available for all the goods. Some goods have supplementary units since they have different characteristics. Which goods will be compiled according to  which quantity type is published in the Customs Tariff  Statistical Position Handbook prepared by the Ministry of Trade came into force with the Decision of the Presidency of the Republic of Turkey and published in the Official Gazette.
Statistical threshold: Statistical threshold used by TurkStat in trade in goods statistics is 100 US Dollars. Transactions under 100 US Dollars are not included in trade in goods statistics.
 
Balance of foreign trade: The balance of trade  is the difference between the value of exports and imports. If the difference is negative, it is  foreign trade deficit, otherwise it is foreign trade surplus.
 
Foreign trade volume: The total of exports and imports of a country over a certain period of time (generally in a year).
 
Ratio of exports coverage imports: It is calculated by dividing exports value by imports value, then multiplying result by 100. It indicates exports coverage imports.
Definition: Foreign trade statistics covers cross border trade in goods between Turkey and other countries. International trade in services statistics are not covered in statistics.

The “general trade system” (GTS) rules are applied both for production and publication of foreign trade statistics.

The general trade system covers all goods enter the country's economic area and goods leave from country's economic area. Thus, customs warehouses and free zones in Turkey data is included in trade statistics. 

Free zones and customs warehouses are not included in foreign trade statistics in the STS, on the other hand, only the goods entered or left a country’s free circulation area is included.

According to the STS, customs warehouses and free zones are not considered inside of the country’s statistical territory. Thus, goods entered in or left from customs warehouses and free zones of the country are included in the calculations, while international trade between customs warehouses and free zones to abroad are excluded.

Since free zone and warehouse operations were carried out according to different legislations, documents and form orders, there was no information for detailed data production according to the general trade system. As a result of the studies started in 2012, detailed data on the 2013-2019 period were produced. In addition, the forms and documents used in this process were made suitable for detailed data production.

According to the general trade system, data sources related to foreign trade statistics are available from 2013, so the data in question will be available for 2013-2020 period.

Foreign trade statististics according to the general trade system are used in balance of payment and national accounts system. With the publication of foreign trade statistics in detail according to the general trade system, it has become compatible with both national accounts and balance of payments.

Detailed foreign trade statistics according to the general trade system are published by Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) from January 2020. Besides, annual and monthly foreign trade statistics according to the special trade system are published as additional table with press release and statistical table. Besides, detailed data dissemination continue through database.

Classifications: The codes used for compiling foreign trade statistics are the 12-digit codes called Customs Tariff Statistical Position (GTIP). The first 6 digits (HS) are based on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System prepared and managed by World Customs Organisation (WCO) and used by United Nations (UN), the first 8 digits are based on the Combined Nomenclature (CN), used in EU and the last 4 digits are added by Turkey for national purposes.

Furthermore, the data is available in SITC Rev.2, SITC Rev.3, SITC Rev.4, ISIC Rev.2, ISIC Rev.3, ISIC Rev.4, BEC, CPA, CPC, NACE Rev.2 and NST2007 classifications.

European Union’s country and country group classification, Geonomenclature, is used.

Economic and geographical country groups are also available.

Classification of Product Group by Technology Intensity was prepared by Eurostat based on NACE Rev.2 and adjusted to ISIC Rev.4 classification.

High-technology:
 Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations (21) 
Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products (26) 
Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery (30.3) 

Medium-high-technology:
Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products (20) 
Manufacture of weapons and ammunition (25.2) 
Manufacture of electrical equipment (27) 
Manufacture of machineryand equipment n.e.c. (28) 
Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers (29) 
Manufacture of other transport equipment (30) excluding Building of ships and boats (30.1) and excluding Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery (30.3) 
Manufacture of medical and dental instruments and supplies (32.5) 

Medium-low-technology:
Reproduction of recorded media (18.2) 
Manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products (19) 
Manufacture of rubber and plastic products (22) 
Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products (23) 
Manufacture of basic metals (24) 
Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment (25) excluding Manu-facture of weapons and ammunition (25.2) 
Building of ships and boats (30.1) 

Low-technology:
Manufacture of food products (10) 
Manufacture of beverages (11) 
Manufacture of tobacco products (12) 
Manufacture of textiles (13) 
Manufacture of wearing apparel (14) 
Manufacture of leather and related products (15) 
Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials (16) 
Manufacture of paper and paper products (17) 
Printing and reproduction of recorded media (18) excluding Reproduction of recorded media (18.2) 
Manufacture of furniture (31) 
Other manufacturing (32) excluding Manufacture of medical and dental instruments and supplies (32.5) 
 
Foreign trade statistics are revised frequently by requirements and needs.
 
Main reasons are new data (customs declaration), corrections on declarations made by declarant, late answers from traders, corrections on ships and aircrafts, repair and maintenance, goods for processing, etc.

http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/indir/metodolojikDokumanlar/dti_metod_en.pdf
 
Every month, data is revised and published with following news release. Annual data is finalized in July of following year (T+6) (EU's rule on finalizing trade data is T+10).
 
In case of important changes on data coverage and methodology, users are informed by "public announcement" before publication and meta data is also revised.

http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/indir/revizyon/2020_RBF_EN_ESGDB_DTIG_DTI.pdf

Data sources: Data sources of foreign trade statistics by general trade system:
 
"Free zone transaction form" used in international transactions of free zones, 
"Customs declaration" used in direct transactions with abroad from Turkey's free circulation area, free zones and warehouses, 
"Warehouse declaration" used for goods entering to warehouses from abroad, 
The common transit system called "new computerized transit system" and "TIR Carnet" used for goods sent from warehouses abroad. 
In addition, data of natural gas and electricity imported/exported by public authorities are compiled from related companies. Data of financial leasing are obtained from The Association of Financial Leasing, Factoring and Financing Companies.
 
Data are still being produced according to the special trade system. The data source is only customs declarations.
 
Time of recording: Time of recording of export and import is either date which goods cross border (in other words date of customs clearance).
 
Chapter: The first two digit of Harmonized System (HS) indicates chapter. 99 chapters are used in foreign trade statistics. Chapter 99  is used for national purpose.
 
Customs: It indicates customs administration where customs procedures carry out.
 
Country: It means final destination country for exports, country of origin for imports.
 
Nature of transaction: It means the different characteristics (purchase/sale, work under contract, etc.) which are deemed to be useful in distinguishing one transaction from another.
 
Type of payment: It refers to how transactions carried out between buyers and salers in foreign trade.
 
Mode of transport: Transportation system at border.
 
Customs procedure code: Customs procedure codes are 4-digit codes to make information about the customs procedure applied to individual transactions part of the data set for trade statistics.
 
Nationality of means of transport at border: It indicates nationality of means of transport carried goods from/to borders.
 
Free zone: Free zones are the regions set out by the law and excluded from the customs line to increase investment and production for export, to accelerate the inflow of foreign capital and technology, to meet the input needs of the economy cheaply and regularly, and to benefit more from foreign financing and trade opportunities.
 
Warehouse: Warehouse is place established with the purpose of putting the goods under customs supervision and whose conditions and qualities to be sought in its establishment are determined by the regulation. In addition, warehouses are a customs regime where goods can remain indefinitely if they are placed as regulated by the customs legislation, and taxes are not paid during the time that the goods remain in the warehouse.