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PRESS RELEASE

PRESS RELEASE

TECHNICAL INFO:
Yosun KATI
INFO REQUEST:
Data Dissemination Group
+90 312 454 77 54    
+90 312 454 72 65
yosunkati@tuik.gov.tr
bilgi@tuik.gov.tr
  /tuikbilgi
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Coverage of persons: All private households who are living in the territory of Republic of Turkey are covered. Residents of schools, dormitories, kindergartens, rest homes for elderly persons, special hospitals, military barracks and recreation quarters for officers are not covered.

 

Geographical coverage: All settlements in Turkey have been covered in sample selection.

Objective:

Household Labour Force Survey being implemented regularly since 1988 by Turkish Statistical Institute, is the main data source which provides information about those employed; economic activity, occupation, employment status and working hours, while the unemployed; search for your job search time and is being implemented in order to compile information about their work in our country with the supply side of the labor market.

Concepts:

Non-institutional population: Comprises all the population excluding the residents of dormitories of universities, orphanage, rest homes for elderly persons, special hospitals, prisons and military barracks etc.

Non-institutional working age population: Indicates the population 15 years old and over within the non-institutional civilian population.

Labour force: Comprises all employed persons and all unemployed.

Labour force participation rate: Indicates the ratio of the labour force to non-institutional working age population.

Employment: Comprises all the non-institutional working age population who are included in the persons “at work” and “not at work” described below.

·  Persons at work: Persons economically active during the reference period for at least one    hour as a regular employee, casual employee, employer, self employed or unpaid family  worker.

· Persons not at work: All self-employed and employers who have a job but not at work in the reference week for various reasons are considered as employed.

Regular employees with a job but did not work during the reference period for various reasons are considered as employed only if they have an assurance of return to work within a period of less than 3 months or if they receive at least 50% and more of their wage or salary from their employer during their absence.Casual employees with a job but did not work during the reference period for various reasons are considered as employed only if they receive at least 50% of their wage from their employer during their absence.Unpaid family workers and casual workers, who did not work in the reference week even 1 hour, are not considered as employed.

The members of producer cooperatives, apprentices or stagers traniees who are working to gain knowledge or skills for any kind of benefit (income in cash or in kind, social security, travelling cost, pocket money etc.) are considered to be employed.

Employment Rate: Employment rate is the ratio of employed persons within the non-institutional working age population.

Underemployment: In the Sixteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians, organized by ILO, the existing definition of underemployment was revised considering the measuring problems and new concepts called as “time-related underemployment” and “inadequate employment” were introduced in order to measure underemployment more accurately. Therefore, essential arrangements have been made in household labour force survey questionnaire in 2009. Results on “time-related underemployment” and “inadequate employment” are published starting from February 2009 period instead of “underemployment” concept that had been calculated and published until that time.

Time-related underemployment: Persons employed in the reference week who worked less than 40 hours as total (in main job and additional job/s) were willing to work additional hours and were available to do so.

Inadequate employment: In case persons are not covered in the “time-related underemployment” concept; persons employed in the reference week but were also looking for a job to replace present job or as an additional job within last 4 weeks and were available to start work within 2 weeks if they could find another job.

Unregistered Employment: Persons who are not registered to any social security institution due to main job worked in reference week.

Persons Unemployed:  The unemployed comprises all persons 15 years of age and over who were not employed during the reference period had used at least one channel for seeking a job during the last 4 weeks and were available to start work within two weeks. Before 2014, the reference period of job search was "last three months".

Additionally, persons who have already found a job and will start to work within 3 months, or established his/her own job but were waiting to complete necessary documents to start work were also considered to be unemployed.

Unemployment Rate: It is the ratio of unemployed persons within the labour force.

Persons not in labour force: They include 15 years old and over non-institutional working age population who are neither unemployed nor employed. The persons not in labour force consist of the following sub-groups:

[1] Not seeking a job but available to start a job: These are the persons who did not look for a job with different reasons, but were available for work within 2 weeks. This group consists of two sub-groups:

           1.1. Discouraged workers: These are the persons not seeking a job because they had                looked for before or did not believe to find a job with his/her qualifications but they were                ready to start to work.

           1.2. Other: These were the persons who were not seeking a job for reasons such as                  being  seasonal workers, busy with household chores, student, property income   earner,            retired or disabled, but available to start to work. 

 [2]  Seasonal workers: Persons were not seeking a job and were not available for work                    because of being seasonal workers.

 [3]  Household chores: Persons not seeking a job and were not available for work because               of doing household chores.

 [4] In education or training: Persons not seeking a job and were not available for work                   because of attending regular school or training.

 [5] Retired persons: Persons not seeking a job and were not available for work because of             being retired.

 [6] Disabled, old or ill: Persons not seeking a job and were not available for work because             of being disabled, ill or elderly.

 [7]  Other: Persons not seeking a job and were not available for work because of family and               personal reasons or other reasons.

Classifications:

In the survey, both those in employment and the persons who were previously employed are classified by their economic activity, occupation, employment status and educational level.

Economic activities: All economic activities (until 2009) are coded at four digit level according to the International Standard of Economic Activities in the European Union (NACE Rev.1). Results are published by 9 or 14 main group given for Turkey, urban and rural and by 4 main sectors for regional breakdown. Tables given in TurkStat web page under the “Statistical Tables and Dynamic Search” title are given by the 9 groups, but in the data base and annual publication results are also given in 14 groups detail from 2004.

A, B    Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing
C         Mining and quarrying
D         Manufacturing 
E         Electricity, gas and water supply
F         Construction
G,H     Wholesale and retail trade , hotels and restaurants
I          Transportation, communication and storage
J,K      Finance, insurance, real estate and business services
L-Q     Community services, social and personal activities

In year 2009, economic activities in labour force survey were coded by International Classification of Economic Activities in the European Union (NACE) both by Revision 1 and by Revision 2. From 2010, the use of the Revision 2 was entirely adopted. Starting from the period of January 2010, economic activities have been published by NACE Revision 2 and in order to provide comparability with the same period of previous year, the results of 2009 have also been published by Revision 2.

A         Agriculture, forestry and fishing
B         Mining and quarrying
C         Manufacturing
D-E     Electricity, gas, steam, water supply, sewerage etc.
F         Construction
G         Wholesale and retail trade
H         Transportation and storage
I          Accommodation and food service activities
J          Information and communication
K         Financial and insurance activities
L         Real estate activities
M        Professional, scientific and technical activities
N         Administrative and support service activities
O         Public administration and defence
P         Education
Q         Human health and social work activities
R         Arts, entertainment and recreation
S-U     Other social, community and personal service activities

Occupation: All occupations were coded at the four-digit level according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO, 88) and the results were given by 9 main group until 2012.

1    Legislators, senior officials and managers
2    Professionals
3    Technicians and market sales workers
4    Clerks
5    Service workers and shop and market sales workers
6    Skilled agricultural and fishery workers
7    Craft and related trade workers
8    Plant and machine operators and assemblers
9     Elementary occupations

All occupations were coded together by using ISCO 88 and ISCO 08 in 2012, while ISCO 08 from 2013 was put into use. Starting from January 2013, according to the classification of occupations ISCO 08 began to be published. To ensure comparability with the same period of the previous year terms in 2012, according to the results of ISCO 08 have also been released.

1    Managers 
2    Professionals
3    Technicians and associate professionals
4    Clerical support workers
5    Service and sales workers
6    Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers
7    Craft and related trades workers
8    Plant and machine operators and assemblers
9     Elemantary occupations

Employment status: All persons who are currently employed and persons employed in the past are classified according to International Classification on Status in Employment (ICSE, 1993) and the results are published by this classification.

1.   Regular employee
2.   Employer
3.   Self employed
4.   Unpaid family worker

Educational status: The educational attainment level for all persons 6 years old and over is coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED, 1997).

1.     Illiterate

2.     Less than high school
  1. Literate withour any diploma
  2. Primary school
  3. Primary education
  4. Secondary school or vocational secondary school

3.     High school and vocational school at high school level

  • High school
  • Vocational school at high school level

4.     Higher education

  • Higher education
  • University
  • Master or doctorate

International and regional directive: Household labour force survey, where international standards have been followed in terms of definitions and concepts from the beginning of its first application, norms and standards of the European Union Statistical Office (Eurostat) and International Labour Organization (ILO) are being used.

 

 

Method of Sampling: For Household Labour Force Survey, two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used. Based on adress, a rotation pattern is formed to ensure a 50% of overlap between two consecutive periods and in the same periods of the two consecutive years and 8 sub samples have been used at each period. In design of the study,  sample size has been equally distributed to the weeks,  which will be applied in each term. As of 2014, the quarterly survey sample size is 44.000 households. In determining sample volume size Eurostat regulation numbered 577/98 is based on. In design of the study, administrative division of the year 2014 is based on. The estimate size of the study is periodically the whole Turkey, annualy is the NUTS Level 2.  

Weighing: Weighting is a method used to obtain parameters from the data set resulting from sampling so as to represent the universe. In the study,  while reaching the final weight, the design weights have been calculated depending on the selection criteria; have been controlled for external distribution and corrected for non-responses. In weightning, age group, gender, NUTS Level 2, urban-rural and household size are based on as external control.

Data sources: Data were collected from the households which were selected by defined sampling method. Statistical unit used is “household” in labour force surveys. Demographic information (age, sex, educational status, relationship to household head) is asked to all members of the household. But, questions on labour force status are asked for persons 15 years old and over.

 

Data collection method: All information was collected by interviewers on a face-to-face basis with the help of portable computers (Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing-CAPI).

Data availabilitySurvey has been applied since 1988. Between 1988-1999 term the survey was applied twice a year using the last weeks of April and October as reference week. Since 2000 it has been applied on monthly basis.

The results of the survey were announced on quarterly basis between 2000-2003 periods. Starting with January 2005, Household Labour Force Survey results are announced in every month based on the moving averages of three months. The weighting coefficients are calculated based on the mid-month population projections and results are called with the name of the middle month in order to simplify expression. In this context, the disclosed press releases of February, May, August and November are completely comparable with the  results published periodically since 2000.

With the continuous survey application, the 13 weeks covered along with the corresponding month in each period are considered.

Geographical detail: Results of the survey were published by Turkey, urban and rural between 1988-1999 terms. The estimations have been given again for Turkey, urban and rural areas on quarterly basis and annually for seven geographical regions and selected nine province centers (Adana, Ankara, Antalya, Bursa, Erzurum, Gaziantep, ─░stanbul, ─░zmir, Samsun) besides the Turkey, urban and rural between 2000-2003. The quarterly results of the survey are provided for Turkey, urban and rural level as in previous applications and annual results are supplied for Classification of Region Units Level 1 (in urban/rural distinction) and for whole by Level 2 since 2004.

Timeliness: The results of the survey are announced in the 45th day following the end of the related term (3 month periods) in the 15th day of each month (in case of the 15th falls on a weekend the following working day) at 10.00 o'clock with a press release and at the same time disseminated through the web site both in Turkish and in English.

Seasonal adjustmentSeasonal effects prevent observing the general tendency of data because of their temporary characteristics. Therefore, identification of seasonal patterns of short term indicators plays crucial role in order to make reliable comparisons between consecutive periods.

1. Method Used: Currently,  Turkstat  carries out the seasonal adjustment of Labour Force Statistics, using TRAMO-SEATS methodology based on ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) model estimation developed by the Banco de Espana and also suggested by Eurostat. The software that is used for the application of this method  is JDemetra+ 2.2.0  which is developed to the European Statistical System directives  by the Belgian Central Bank in cooperation with German Central Bank and Eurostat.

2. Seasonal Adjustment Process: The seasonal adjustment process of Labour Force Statistics begins at the end of each year with determination of the specification of models of the next year.  This specified model structure is kept fixed throughout the year to adjust seasonal effects. At the end of the year, just like the previous year, specification of econometric estimation models for the following year is determined. The identified process repeats itself in a cyclical manner each year.

Labour force, unemployed persons and employed persons according to economic activities; employment, unemployment, non-agricultural and youth unemployment rates have been seasonally adjusted within the context of labour force statistics. Because of the calendar related effects are not statistically significant, labour force statistics are published as only seasonally adjusted.

3. Direct or Indirect Approach: Seasonally adjusted figures of labour force statistics have been produced by indirect approach. Namely, labour force, employed persons according to economic activities and unemployed persons are firstly seasonally adjusted and then aggregated to derive seasonally adjusted employment and unemployment rates.

4. Publication: Labour Force statistics have been published  as seasonally adjusted.  “Seasonally adjusted” data is derived from unadjusted data by removing effects originating from seasonal effects. Seasonally adjusted data should be used in comparisons regarding the previous month/period.

Online or database: Household labour force survey database includes time series data since 1988. The tables related to “1988 and January 2014 period” and “February 2014 and later” are in TurkStat web page under the “Statistical Tables and Dynamic Search” in sub section “Dynamic Search”. 

The Revision Information Form regarding the revisions to be carried out in the current year for the statistics produced in the scope of this press release can be accessed from the link below.


http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/indir/revizyon/IYKD_HIG_HIA_EN.pdf